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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines


The title of the paper should be typed in bold-faced, as brief as possible and set in the center of the page. Abbreviations are not permitted in the title. The names of the authors follow and have to use initials for the first and middle name and full name for the last name. The author's name, institutional affiliation, and full contact details (postal, phone, fax, and e-mail) need to appear on the first page of the manuscript



Please provide a short abstract between 250-300 words. The abstract should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references. Usually, the abstract summarizes the work reported and does not contain background information or speculative statements.


The International System of Units (SI) should be used.


Please provide 4 to 6 keywords or two-to three word phrases in alphabetical order separated with semicolons, not included in the title. Scientific or systematic name of plants and fungi etc. should be written in italic.



Abbreviations and their explanations should be collected alphabetically arranged in a list. Standard and common abbreviation e.g. chemical and mathematical symbols should be used without definition; the following statistical symbols may be used without explanation: s.d. = standard deviation, s.e. = standard error, s.e.d. = standard error of difference, R = multiple correlation, r = sample correlation coefficient, b = regression coefficient, PCR, DNA, etc.



This section should be outlining only essential background, but should not include either the findings or the conclusions. It should not be a review of the subject area but a context with respect to previous works done in the field, and should finish with a clear statement of the question being addressed. The literature should be cited.

Materials and Methods
Please provide sufficient methodological details to allow a competent person to repeat the work.

Results and Discussion

This should highlight the results and the significance of the results and place them in the context of other work. Point out the importance of the results and place them in the context of previous studies-only discussion that illuminates significant areas should be presented. The final paragraph ought to provide a resume of the main conclusions



The author(s) may wish to thank some research institutions, companies, or governmental bodies or people who have contributed or financially supported the research from which the manuscript is derived, but be brief, and do not acknowledge Editors by name.


In the text a reference should be quoted by the author’s name and date (in parentheses). Where there are three authors, all names should appear at the first mention; thereafter and at all times if there are four or more authors, the first name followed by et al. should be used. All references that mentioned should be written down and arranged from oldest to newest and from A to Z.

Journal names should be abbreviated according to the List of Title Word Abbreviations: http://www.issn.org/ services/online-services/access-to-the-ltwa/


Figures and photographs

Draw figures in black on white or colorless medium with captions on a separate page. Avoid use of heavy-weight lines. Conform to dimensions of journal page (133 mm x 184 mm), allowing for the caption and margins. Submit black and white or color photographs on glossy paper, with strong contrasts. Electronic images of good quality can be embedded in the Word file.


Color reproduction

All figures provided in color will automatically be published online in color, with no charge. Authors are charged $100 per figure for color reproduction in print if this is requested



Numerous small tables or unduly large and complex ones should not be used. Avoid the overuse of significant digits which may suggest false or unwarranted precision. The level of experimental error and the statistical significance of the results should be given. Levels of statistical significance should be indicated as follows without explanation:

* = P<0.05, ** = P<0.01, *** = P<0.001


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